Grammar Instruction at the Elementary School Level
Greetings. The following materials are intended to provide an introduction to Grammar Instruction at the Elementary School Level. They were assembled from the World Wide Web, ERIC Database, and a variety of other bibliographic resources. Instructions for acquiring the full text of the ERIC records is presented at the end of this file.
Zeynep B. Erdiller
Alphabetically arranged listing of bibliographies
Categorically arranged listing of bibliographies
Guide to Grammar and Writing
Online English Grammar
English Grammar and Style Theme Page
The Best Grammar Site for Kids and Teens
Grammar Bytes! Interactive Grammar Review
English Grammar Connection
Proteacher: Lesson Plans on Teaching Grammar
Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths
Graded lessons in English :an elementary English grammar : consisting of one hundred practical lessons, carefully graded and adapted to the class-room
Citations From the ERIC Database
AU: Patterson,-Nancy, ed.; Pipkin,-Gloria, ed.
TI: Grammar in the Labyrinth: Resources on the World Wide Web.
SO: Voices-from-the-Middle; v8 n3 p63-67 Mar 2001
NT: Theme: Contextualizing Grammar.
DEM: *English-Instruction; *Grammar-; *Language-Arts; *Resource-Materials; *World-Wide-Web; *Writing-Instruction
DER: Elementary-Secondary-Education; Writing-Improvement
AB: Notes and discusses resources on the World Wide Web that deal with grammar and that may be useful to teachers. Lists traditional grammar websites, including online handbooks and style guides, but warns that the isolated teaching of grammar has little impact on student writing. Concludes that websites are needed that actually show teachers how to contextualize grammar instruction. (SR)
AU: Weaver,-Constance; McNally,-Carol; Moerman,-Sharon
TI: To Grammar or Not To Grammar: That Is Not the Question!
SO: Voices-from-the-Middle; v8 n3 p17-33 Mar 2001
NT: Theme: Contextualizing Grammar.
DEM: *English-Instruction; *Grammar-; *Instructional-Effectiveness; *Revision-Written-Composition; *Writing-Improvement; *Writing-Instruction
DER: Editing-; Elementary-Secondary-Education; Language-Arts; Teacher-Effectiveness
AB: Argues that, taught in the context of writing, grammar can enhance and improve students' writing. Offers classroom examples showing how: good preparation for writing fosters good grammar and detail; students can use grammatical and syntactic constructions used by professional authors as models for their own writing; and how to help students learn revision strategies at the sentence and paragraph level. (SR)
TI: Yes, We Do Teach Writing Conventions! (Though the Methods May Be Unconventional).
SO: Ohio-Reading-Teacher; v34 n1 p38-44 Spr 2000
DEM: *Editing-; *Educational-Strategies; *Grammar-; *Writing-Instruction; *Writing-Skills
DER: Elementary-Education; Writing-Improvement
AB: Organizes instructional strategies into two sets: the first focusing on teaching editing skills, and the second on teaching writing conventions unconventionally. Considers teaching writing conventions using a social constructivist approach. Presents instructional approaches that provide a framework for helping students to express their ideas confidently in writing and to use writing conventions competently to communicate those ideas clearly to others. (SG)
AU: Geimer,-Mandy; Getz,-Jennifer; Pochert,-Terry; Pullam,-Karen
TI: Improving Student Achievement in Language Arts through Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Strategies.
NT: Master of Arts Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University and SkyLight Professional Development.
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
DEM: *Grammar-; *Instructional-Effectiveness; *Language-Arts; *Multiple-Intelligences; *Reading-Comprehension; *Spelling-Instruction
DER: Academic-Achievement; Action-Research; Elementary-Education
AB: Student achievement has been low in language arts in Suburban Chicago, Illinois school districts. This action research project was designed to determine the effect of incorporating multiple intelligence strategies into the language arts curriculum. The targeted students were in the second, third, and fifth grades, in a western suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The documentation to prove low achievement included chapter/unit tests and quiz scores, teacher observation of low time on task, limited work completion, state standardized test scores, and other teacher assessments. Upon analyzing the probable causes, it was discovered that reading was the lowest academic area tested on the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP). Further concern was indicated through teacher observation of student performance. Other factors that impact low student achievement are mobility, lack of teacher training and support in implementing existing curriculum, and teachers not addressing students' various learning styles. After reviewing possible interventions from current literature works, Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences repeatedly appeared as a suggested solution. The selected intervention led to a comparison between traditional methods of teaching and multiple intelligence strategies. Post intervention data indicated a general trend toward an increase in achievement through the use of multiple intelligences strategies. A major increase was seen in students with Individual Education Programs (IEPs) and lower achieving students. An improvement was also noted in homework completion, quality of homework, student time on task, and student enjoyment of activities. (Contains 25 references, and 10 tables and 4 figures of data. Appendixes contain grammar, reading comprehension, and spelling lesson plans [for each grade level and in traditional and multiple intelligence format], the student survey instrument, student assessments, quizzes, and comments from the student survey.) (Author/RS)
TI: Grammatical Vocabulary: A Plea for the Re-Introduction of Grammatical Concepts into Our Schools.
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
DEM: *Descriptive-Linguistics; *Grammar-; *Student-Needs
DER: Elementary-Secondary-Education; Language-Skills; Writing-Improvement
AB: Schools stopped teaching any grammatical system some time ago, as they probably should have. But the schools also, at the same time, stopped teaching grammatical terminology, a mistake which has had lasting consequences. Students need to be told what "infinitive," "preposition," "case," and "predicate complement" mean. They need the tools to think about and analyze their sentences. This paper argues that students should have a vocabulary for discussing language. The paper contends that if students know the meanings of grammatical terms and phrases and have practiced identifying the concepts, they will then be able to recognize the structures in their writing, and educators will enable them to improve their work. The paper outlines the problem, considers why the problem arose, discusses traditional grammar (1675-1950s) and descriptive linguistics (1950s and 1960s), and suggests what is to be done now. (Author/NKA)
AU: Muter,-Valerie; Snowling,-Margaret
TI: Grammar and Phonology Predict Spelling in Middle Childhood.
SO: Reading-and-Writing:-An-Interdisciplinary-Journal; v9 n5-6 p407-25 Dec 1997
NT: Theme: Spelling.
DEM: *Grammar-; *Graphemes-; *Orthographic-Symbols; *Phonemes-
DER: Elementary-Education; Longitudinal-Studies; Predictor-Variables; Spelling-
AB: Reports the findings of a follow-up study of children who participated in a longitudinal study of phonological and literacy development. Finds measures of phoneme awareness to be better predictors of spelling than measures of rime awareness. Supports the view that awareness of grammatical rules is important in determining orthographic proficiency as children get older. (NH)
AU: Yates,-Robert; Kenkel,-Jim
TI: We're Prescriptivists. Isn't Everyone?
NT: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the National Council of Teachers of English Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar (10th, Somerville, New Jersey, July 16-17, 1999).
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
DEM: *Diagnostic-Teaching; *English-Instruction; *English-Teachers; *Grammar-; *Language-Standardization; *Language-Variation
DER: Case-Studies; Elementary-Secondary-Education; Higher-Education; Student-Educational-Objectives
AB: Noting that the National Council of Teachers of English Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar is working towards formulating national goals for grammar instruction at all levels of schooling, this paper explores what teaching English grammar is all about. The paper contends that, acknowledge it or not, English teachers are engaged in a prescriptivist enterprise. It also finds that linguists, educated in a tradition which prides itself in being empirical and scientific, find it easy to look down on prescriptive rules and the unaccountable importance which the lay public attaches to them. The paper discusses the historical motivation for standardization, which began with the advent of printing, and considers the ideas of the American structural linguists in the 20th century. It also looks at some recent arguments which appear to deny much value for a Standard. The paper describes the "iron fist" type of prescriptivism and the "velvet glove" type of prescriptivism. It concludes by illustrating the insecurities experienced by an ordinary, educated speaker of English in the face of the realities of sociolinguistic variation and proposes that the goal of teachers of English grammar should be that all students consciously know the most important principles of Standard English. (Contains 14 references.) (NKA)
TI: The Place of Grammar in the Language Arts Curriculum.
AV: For full text: http://www.artsci.gmcc.ab.ca/people/einarssonb/elac.html.
NT: Paper presented at the English Language Arts Council of the Alberta Teachers Association (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 1999).
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
DEM: *English-Instruction; *Grammar-; *Holistic-Approach; *Traditional-Grammar; *Writing-Composition
DER: Elementary-Secondary-Education; Higher-Education; Language-Arts; Writing-Skills
AB: The history of grammar instruction includes two approaches: the handbook approach, which is practiced today, and the textbook approach. The handbook approach focuses on rules for correct writing and is an error-based view, while the textbook approach would treat grammar holistically and interpretively and would systematically explain new concepts in light of previous ones. If grammar is to survive in today's classroom, it will need to return to the textbook approach. One current example related to the textbook approach envisions a creative, activity-based classroom, but asserts that no theory should be taught. Knowing grammar in a holistic and theoretical way, however, cannot be a harm to student writing, and studies are showing benefits of heightened awareness of language on student composition. Contains 15 references. (EF)
AU: Lewis,-Rena-B.; Ashton,-Tamarah-M.; Haapa,-Bonnie; Kieley,-Candace-L.; Fielden,-Carl
TI: Improving the Writing Skills of Students with Learning Disabilities: Are Word Processors with Spelling and Grammar Checkers Useful?
SO: Learning-Disabilities:-A-Multidisciplinary-Journal; v9 n3 p87-98 Fall 1998-Win 1999
DEM: *Computer-Uses-in-Education; *Grammar-; *Learning-Disabilities; *Spelling-; *Word-Processing; *Writing-Strategies
DER: Computer-Assisted-Instruction; Educational-Technology; Elementary-Secondary-Education
AB: A study involving 106 elementary and secondary students with learning disabilities and 97 typical peers found that students who used spelling and grammar checkers were more successful than transition group students in reducing mechanical errors, particularly non-real-word spelling errors, and in making positive changes from first to final drafts. (Author/CR)
AU: Hagemann,-Julie; Wininger,-Melvin
TI: An Ideological Approach to Grammar Pedagogy in English Education Courses.
SO: English-Education; v31 n4 p265-94 Jul 1999
DEM: *Academic-Standards; *English-Instruction; *English-Teacher-Education; *Grammar-
DER: Elementary-Secondary-Education; Higher-Education; Sentence-Diagraming; Structural-Analysis-Linguistics; Teaching-Methods
AB: Presents an ideological model of literacy for teaching grammar. Discusses its connection to guidelines for teacher preparation and language-arts standards. Discusses strategies in language classes to help teachers see language and grammar, along with language and grammar pedagogy, in broader terms. Concludes that English-teaching majors must understand the contexts in which sentence analysis and usage-choice takes place. (SC)
TI: Caught'ya Again! More Grammar with a Giggle.
AV: Maupin House Publishing, Inc., P.O. Box 90148, Gainesville, FL 32607-0148; Tel: 800-524-0634; e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org ($14.95).
PR: Document Not Available from EDRS.
DEM: *English-Instruction; *Grammar-; *Humor-; *Language-Usage; *Writing-Exercises; *Writing-Instruction
DER: Class-Activities; Elementary-Secondary-Education; Learning-Activities
AB: This teaching guide is built around a method (called the "Caught'ya" method) of teaching grammar and mechanics with humor. The guide contains story ideas and three sets of 100 Caught'ya sentences, as well as a chapter which discusses specific ways to use the Caught'ya at home. Following an introduction, the guide is divided into the following nine sections: (1) Revisiting Caught'ya! Grammar with a Giggle (Skim This Chapter if You Have Read the Book); (2) How to Do a "Caught'Ya for Two" (Parents and Tutors, This One Is Especially for You); (3) Coming Up with Your Own Story and Sentences (A Dialogue with a Plot in Mind); (4) Mini-Lessons (Ideas for the Extra 35 Minutes You Now Have); (5) Writing Suggestions (More Ideas!); (6) Six New Story Ideas (Plus Ninety Sentences of "Adolescent Transmuted Karate Otters"); (7) 100 Caught'ya Sentences for Grades 2 through 5 ("The Meanest Teacher in the World"); (8) 100 Caught'ya Sentences for Grades 6 through 8 ("Tales of a Four-eyed Weirdo"); and (9) 100 Caught'ya Sentences for grades 9 through 12 ("Charlie Excess Does It Again"). An appendix entitled "Everything You Never Wanted to Know about Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage, but I'm Going to Tell You Anyway" and a 13-item bibliography conclude the guide. (NKA)
TI: Assessing Grammar Teaching Methods Using a Metacognitive Framework.
SO: Journal-of-Teaching-Writing; v15 n2 p259-83 1996
DEM: *Cognitive-Style; *Grammar-; *Teaching-Methods
DER: Elementary-Secondary-Education; English-Instruction; Induction-; Instructional-Effectiveness; Metacognition-; Sentence-Combining; Traditional-Grammar
AB: Discusses acquiring knowledge implicitly, versus explicitly, as it relates to learning grammar. Codifies three grammar-teaching methods (traditional grammar, sentence combining, and the functional/inductive approach) by plotting them on a metacognitive model of language skills that examines analyzed knowledge and cognitive control. Shows how this approach can help decide which methods are appropriate for which students. (SR)
TI: Sparing the Rod: What Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.
SO: Changing-English; v4 n2 p229-39 Oct 1997
NT: Journal availability: Carfax Publishing Ltd., 875-81 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139.
DEM: *Grammar-; *Knowledge-Base-for-Teaching; *Teacher-Role
DER: Corporal-Punishment; Elementary-Secondary-Education; Foreign-Countries
AB: Opines that what teachers need to know about grammar is how to teach it without resorting either literally or figuratively to the "cane and the birch rod." Finds that teachers need to look again at the "what" and the "why": what grammar is and why it is taught. Also considers answers given by others. (PA)
TI: Grammar Revisited in the English Curriculum.
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
DEM: *Form-Classes-Languages; *Grammar-; *Integrated-Activities; *Language-Arts; *Sentence-Structure
DER: Class-Activities; Classroom-Techniques; Elementary-Education; English-Curriculum; Learning-Activities; Learning-Strategies; Spelling-; Student-Motivation
AB: Pupils need to study grammar that is useful and functional. How much stress should the language arts place upon pupils understanding the eight parts of speech in traditional grammar? Good teaching emphasizes proceeding from the concrete to the semi-concrete in teaching-learning situations, then the abstract phase of learning needs to be emphasized. For example, the verb in traditional grammar can be presented meaningfully to students by showing action by dramatization. To learn adjectives, pupils might play a game in which they would provide adjective alternatives to those in a sentence printed on the chalkboard. Pupils can make numerous substitutions in a prepositional phrase, playing with words and developing their vocabularies. To be knowledgeable about grammar and its use, pupils also should understand sentence patterns. The most appealing aspect of word study is the student centered activities. Word study that focuses on spelling-meaning and spelling-grammar connections helps students expand their vocabulary, develop sensitivity to word choice in reading and writing, and build explicit awareness of how English orthography functions in the integrated language arts program. (Contains six references.) (CR)
AU: Barnitz,-John-G., ed.
TI: Revising Grammar Instruction for Authentic Composing and Comprehending (Linguistic Perspectives in Literacy Education).
SO: Reading-Teacher; v51 n7 p608-11 Apr 1998
DEM: *Grammar-; *Reading-Instruction; *Whole-Language-Approach; *Writing-Instruction
DER: Class-Activities; Elementary-Education
AB: Presents instructional strategies that integrate syntax instruction with literacy instruction, while maintaining the integrity of language and the literacy process. Discusses using authentic texts and keeping the literacy process whole, manipulating sentence structures in context, and revising linguistic priorities. (SR)
TI: Favorite Sentences: Grammar in Action (Teaching Skills within Meaningful Contexts).
SO: Reading-Teacher; v51 n1 p70-72 Sep 1997
DEM: *Childrens-Literature; *English-Instruction; *Grammar-; *Writing-Instruction
DER: Elementary-Education; Instructional-Effectiveness; Writing-Improvement
AB: Voices concerns with isolated exercises in grammar. Offers an alternative, in which teachers collect sentences (mostly from literature) and use them to point out or teach skills for writers. Offers numerous examples. (SR)
TI: Searching for a Plot.
SO: Book-Links; v6 n6 p13-17 Jul 1997
NT: Journal availability: Book Links, 434 W Downer, Aurora, IL 60506.
DEM: *Annotated-Bibliographies; *Childrens-Literature; *Story-Grammar
DER: Books-; Class-Activities; Creative-Writing; Elementary-Education; Picture-Books; Writing-Exercises
AB: Illustrates the elements of story structure (beginning, middle, and end) by discussing excerpts from children's literature. Provides an annotated bibliography of picture books for each element, elementary classroom activities, and writing exercises. (PEN)
TI: Reading and Writing with Help from Story Grammar.
SO: TEACHING-Exceptional-Children; v29 n4 p10-14 Mar-Apr 1997
DEM: *Learning-Disabilities; *Low-Achievement; *Reading-Instruction; *Story-Grammar; *Writing-Instruction
DER: Elementary-Education; Skill-Development; Teaching-Methods; Writing-Composition
AB: Discusses "story grammar" strategies, such as self-questioning, story maps, character and plot development, and comparison and contrast of similar stories, which can be used to help elementary students with learning disabilities or low-achieving students improve their reading and writing skills. Activities are described for each strategy. (CR)
TI: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar (6th, Williamsport, PA, July 28-29, 1995).
CS: National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.
NT: For Proceedings 1990-1994, see CS 215 404-408.
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
DEM: *English-Instruction; *Grammar-; *Teaching-Methods; *Writing-Instruction
DER: Elementary-Secondary-Education; Error-Analysis-Language; Higher-Education; Literacy-; Technical-Writing
AB: This proceedings contains papers presented at the sixth annual conference of the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar. Papers in the proceedings are: "The Politics of Grammar" (Sabah A. Salih); "(Still) Trying to Find an Answer to the Problem of 'Error' in Writing" (William McCleary); "Grammar and Literacy: Embedding Outside Sources in Text" (Jim Kenkel and Robert Yates); "The Nine-Question Method of Teaching Grammar" (Glenn Swetman); "Simplifying Tree Structures in the Grammar Classroom" (R.A. Buck); "Teaching Grammar through Technical Documents" (Jim Brosnan); "Proposal for an Official AETG Bibliographer" (Delma McLeod-Porter); "A Hands-On Non-Traditional Grammar That's Fun" (Anthony Hunter); "Between Restrictive and Nonrestrictive: Amplifying Clauses" (Brock Haussamen); "Using Error Notebooks to Improve Grammar" (James Boswell, Jr.); "Surrealism and Grammar: Creatively Reinvigorating the Classroom" (Kevin Griffith); and "Functional Grammar for English (Not Latin)" (Carolyn G. Hartnett). Minutes of the 1994 business meeting, the 1995 conference program, and a list of conference participants are attached. (RS)
TI: Grammar Making a Comeback in Composition Teaching.
SO: Composition-Chronicle:-Newsletter-for-Writing-Teachers; v8 n6 p1-4 Oct 95
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
DEM: *English-Curriculum; *Grammar-; *Language-Usage; *Writing-Composition; *Writing-Instruction
DER: Educational-Trends; Elementary-Secondary-Education; Higher-Education; Language-Patterns; Theory-Practice-Relationship
AB: This journal article focuses on the return of grammar in composition teaching. After about 2 decades of virtual banishment from the higher reaches of English teaching theory, grammar has returned as a subject of serious discussion. This is the result in part of a new assertiveness by a group of people who never lost interest in grammar as part of the English curriculum and by better teaching methods. Another influence may be a growing interest in several aspects of composition that seem to require students to have at least a modicum of knowledge about grammar. One of these is stylistic grammar, which promises users a clearer, more graceful style and elimination of bureaucratese, sociologese, and other ridiculed styles. The most popular book of this kind of approach is Joseph Williams' "Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace." As teachers move away from the error-detection method of grammar, they will find new approaches available. First, there are several revisions of the old rules. In "Revising the Rules: Traditional Grammar and Modern Linguistics," Brock Haussamen takes a variety of traditional rules and shows that they do not really reflect how English actually works. Second, there is now the development of pedagogical grammar, a grammar designed to be both simple and accurate. Third, there are the new teaching methods to replace the "drill and kill" approach, such as those in Muriel Harris and Katherine E. Rowan's article, "Explaining Grammatical Concepts," which show, based on research in cognitive psychology, how to construct an elaborate, effective lesson around grammar. A list of pedagogical grammars is included. (TB)
TI: Welcome to the Word Market.
SO: Teaching-PreK-8; v25 n3 p54-56 Nov-Dec 1994
DEM: *Class-Activities; *Educational-Games; *Grammar-; *Sentences-
DER: Elementary-Education; Language-Skills; Learning-Activities; Syntax-; Teaching-Methods
AB: Describes a word game developed by a sixth-grade teacher that has groups of students "bid on" and "buy" words, with the object of forming as many grammatically correct sentences as possible. Points are awarded based on sentence length, correct punctuation, and sentence type (simple, complex, or compound). (MDM)
TI: Grammar Revisited in the Language Arts.
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
DEM: *English-; *Grammar-; *Sentence-Structure
DER: Elementary-Education; Language-Arts; Language-Usage; Teaching-Methods; Writing-Skills
AB: Grammar can have meaning and be of use to the learner depending upon the methods of instruction that are being used. The eight traditional parts of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverbs, prepositional phrase, conjunction, pronouns, and interjection) can be made useful for learners by giving concrete, semi-concrete, and abstract examples when pupils engage in composing ideas to be presented to others. Looking for agreement of subject and predicate in writing is a useful task. Pupils also need to understand sentence patterns, five of which comprise most sentences in the English language. Each of these types of sentences can be dramatized to provide meaning. Pupils also need to learn the four basic ways of enlarging or expanding sentences: using modifiers, using appositives, subordinating one sentence to another; and compounding sentences. Pupils need to know the reasons why a language operates. Thought must go into knowing how a language operates, and further thought must go into implementing what is known about a language. (RS)
TI: Building Sentences with the Humpties.
AV: Hajek House, 12750 W. 6th Place, Golden, CO 80401 ($12.95 plus $3 shipping/handling; discounts for quantity purchases).
NT: For related book, see CS 214 257.
PR: Document Not Available from EDRS.
DEM: *Grammar-; *Sentence-Diagraming; *Sentences-
DER: Class-Activities; Elementary-Education; Sentence-Combining; Sentence-Structure
AB: Second in a series of books designed to make learning to write and understanding the structure of language easy and fun, this book gives students the opportunity to see how each of the parts of speech functions in a sentence. The focus of the book is twofold: to help students learn to recognize and write complete sentences and to familiarize students with the way various parts of speech are related to one another within a sentence. The book also includes opportunities for creative expression and recreation. Sections of the book discuss what a sentence is; subjects; predicates; compound subjects; compound predicates; diagramming; objects; and four kinds of sentences. Answers and multiple copies of the cartoon characters called "Humpties" (used to mark various parts of speech) are attached. (RS)
TI: Errors in the Research into the Effectiveness of Grammar Teaching.
SO: English-in-Education; v28 n1 p20-26 Spr 1994
NT: Special Issue: Back to Basics: The Essentials of English Teaching.
DEM: *English-Instruction; *Grammar-; *Instructional-Effectiveness
DER: Back-to-Basics; Elementary-Secondary-Education; English-Curriculum; Language-Research; Linguistics-; Teaching-Methods; Writing-Research
AB: Asks whether the sustained instruction in the "basics" of English, especially grammar, is being unrightfully ignored. Challenges teachers who claim that instruction in grammar is unneeded or ill-advised. Counters such assertions by examining two research studies purportedly proving the ineffectiveness of teaching grammar. (HB)
TI: Why More English Instruction Won't Mean Better Grammar. Grammar Series No. 1.
AV: Orchid Land Publications, Kea'au, HI 96749-1416 ($2.60 stitched, including postage).
NT: Published by Orchid Land Publications.
PR: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
DEM: *English-Instruction; *Grammar-; *Instructional-Effectiveness; *Instructional-Improvement; *Language-Usage; *Traditional-Grammar
AB: Written for the educated reader cognizant of ordinary grammatical terminology or able to look it up in a dictionary, this booklet discusses why grammar seems so intractable. The booklet begins by offering two reasons why more diligent instruction in English grammar will not improve students' knowledge: (1) what is presented as English grammar bears little relation to the way fashionable young people speak and write; and (2) many analyses are wrong, or fail to capture fundamental principles that reveal the natural systematicity of English grammar. The booklet then presents an extended discussion of these topics using as examples a variety of grammatical rules and how those rules are and should be taught. The booklet concludes that teaching grammar using the principles discussed in the booklet would permit teachers to cover more ground, would yield a better understanding of the systematicity of grammar, and would therefore generate both greater rapport between taught and teacher and greater sympathy for the subject. An appendix discussing how certain grammatical concepts are used in the booklet and a corrigenda list are attached. (RS)
Other Resources (available either for sale or via interlibrary loan)
Title: The ultimate handbook for teaching diverse learners: primary & intermediate Year: 2001 Publisher: East Moline, IL : LinguiSystems, Inc.
Authors: Lanza, J. R.; Flahive, L. K.
Publisher: East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.
Title: Scholastic literacy place practice book : reading, writing, grammar, usage, and mechanics. Grade 4.
Publisher: New York: Scholastic.
Title: Elementary language practice: with key.
Author(s): Vince, M.
Publisher: Oxford : MacMillan Heinemann.
Title: Teaching every child every day: Learning in diverse schools and classrooms
Author(s): Harris, K. R.; Graham, S. & Deshler, D.
Publisher: Brookline Books
Title: Grow parts of speech: user-friendly games & activities for elementary-level language instruction
Author(s): Hisam, D. & Seth, L.
Publisher: Friendly, West Virginia: Etc Publications.
Title: The place of grammar in writing instruction : past, present, future
Author(s): Hunter, S.; and Wallace, R. (Eds).
Publisher: Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers.
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Technique lesson plan
Bloom's taxonomy and English language learners
by Judie Haynes
Your English language learners should be developing thinking skills as they acquire English. Dust off your copy of Bloom's Taxonomy and ask questions from all levels. There are activities that ELLs can do on every level.
Thinking Skills and English language learners
English language learners should be asked critical thinking questions from all levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Some of the tasks on the taxonomy are difficult for ELLs because they lack the language and vocabulary to work in English. However, teachers need to ask questions from all levels of the taxonomy that are age appropriate and at the English language level of the English language learners. Even very young children can work at the Synthesis and Evaluation levels.
Examples at each level below come from Pa Lia's First Day by Michelle Edwards. This book is written at a late second or early third grade level.
Level 1: Knowledge. This level of questioning is what is most frequently used when teaching ELLs, especially for students in pre-production and beginning production levels of English language acquisition. Responses to some of the questions can be made using yes/no or embedded questions. Pictures, drawings, and realia will help students give the correct answer. Responses to these questions are generally right in the text. Here are some questions and directions you might ask:
What did Pa Lia's brother do on the way to school?
Who pushed Pa Lia on the steps?
What name did Stinky call Pa Lia?
When did Pa Lia meet Calliope?
What did Pa Lia do during Math Class?
Level II: Comprehension. This level shows that the student has understood the facts and can interpret them. ESL/bilingual teachers use this level of questioning a lot. We ask students to compare, contrast, illustrate, and classify. We do this oral questions and graphic organizers such as Venn Diagrams and T-charts.
Why did Pa Lia dawdle on the way to school?
How will Pa Lia find her classroom?
Why was Howie mean to Pa Lia?
Why did Pa Lia get in trouble?
Compare Calliope with Howie. Use the word bank.
Make a drawing that shows how Pa Lia felt when she came in the classroom.
Find a picture in the book that shows "Pa Lia felt like a teeny tiny minnow in a huge giant ocean".
Level III: Application. Students are learning to solve problems by using previously learned facts in a different way. ELLs might need scaffolding and word banks to build, choose, construct, develop, organize, plan, select, solve, and identify.
Why did Pa Lia send a note?
How would you do if you needed to find your classroom on the first day of school?
Can you list the ways you could make a new student feel welcome?
Write a different ending to the story.
What questions would you ask Stinky if you could talk to him?
Level 4: Analysis. At this level students may not have enough vocabulary and language to express responses in English. The tasks at this level that English language learners will be able to complete with some teacher scaffolding are: classify, contrast, compare, categorize, sequence.
How do we know Pa La felt nervous? Find the sentences in the story.
Compare Pa Lia's feelings at the beginning of the story with her feelings at the end of the story.
Sequence the following story sentences. What happened first?
Look at the words in the word bank that describe people. Write the words that describe Pa Lia, Calliope, and Howie in the correct column
Can you find four different feelings Pa Lia had during the story?
How do you know that Pa Lia is the hero of the story?
What do you think will happen next in this story?
Level 5: Synthesis. At this level students are compiling information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. ELLs will need teacher support and scaffolding to answer questions at level 5. Synthesis is particularly difficult for ELLs. Students may be able to choose, combine, create, design, develop, imagine, make up, predict, solve, and change.
Pa Lia is a new student at school and she has no friends. How would you solve Pa Lia's problem?
How would you change in this story?
What happens if you do not tell the truth?
Can you invent another character for the story?
How would you change the story to create a different ending?
How could you change the story? How else could Pa Lia make friends? Plan a party for Mrs. Hennessey's class.
Level VI: Evaluation. Questions at this level of Bloom's taxonomy can be modified so that the langue is simplified but the task remains the same. English language learners can learn to give opinions, make judgments about the action in a story and evaluate the work of an author.
The vocabulary usually associated with evaluation may need to be simplified. Here are some questions ELLs would be able to answer with some scaffolding by the teacher.
What do you think will happen if Pa Lia does not tell the truth.
What didn't you like about the story? Why?
Do you think Tou Ger was a good brother? Why or Why not?
What is part of this book did you like best. Tell why you like it?
Why did the Pa Lia decide to tell the truth?
What would you do if you were Pa Lia and the teacher was angry with you?
Read another story by Michelle Edwards. Do you like it better than “Pa Lia's First Day?”
Basic competence lesson plan
Development of English Language Teaching Syllabus in Indonesia
By: Eneng Elis Aisah*
(English Teacher in MTs. Negeri Ciranjang, Cianjur, West Java ,Indonesia)
Many critiques correspond to government due to curriculum change over minister replacement (http://www.suaramerdeka.com/harian/0412/30/nas09.htm, December 30, 2004, retrieved at April 8, 2009). Curriculum, in school context “referring to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in school” (Richard 2001:39), is influenced by the development of paradigm of philosophy (Zais 1976), needs and situational analysis (Richard 2001) and also ‘Global Mega trend’ (Pezzoli & Howe 2001). Therefore the changing of curriculum, followed by the development of syllabus as of means selecting, organizing, assessing content (Brown cited by Sundayana 2004) and goal of curriculum activities in the classroom context (Huda, 1999) holds crucial issues in our education.
This writing is chapter report from a book entitled “Language Learning and Teaching” written by Nuril Huda in 1999. This report discusses the development of English language Teaching Syllabus in Indonesia from 1984 up to 2006. This is divided into four sections. The first will discuss syllabus of 1984 curriculum. The second section will introduce some discussion of syllabus of 1994 curriculum. The next section will be shown syllabus of Competence based curriculum (2004) and finally the latest curriculum – School based curriculum –will be discussed.
The 1984 English Language Teaching (ELT) Syllabus
The 1984 curriculum is based on the amendment of 1975 curriculum (Kasihani cited by Emilia 2005). The education is ruled in UUPP (Undang-Undang Pendidikan dan Pengajaran) No. 4, 1950. The goal of education is membentuk manusia susila jang tjakap dan warga Negara jang demokratis serta bertanggung-djawab tentang kesedjahteraan masyarakat dan tanah air (Chapter II, article 3). As the situational needs, in Pidato Kenegaraan at August 16, 1984 the president of Indonesia address the goal of education development in Repelita III is to improve quality of education, learning opportunity, relevance of education and development, efficiency and effectively of management of education by training and curriculum improvement for fulfilling development skillful labor (Repelita III Chapter XVII). Therefore, due to the needs and situational analysis, the changing of curriculum is necessary.
Although English is placed as the foreign language in Indonesia, the competency of learner in this subject is very important to overcome the national development goal. So, the 1984 English syllabus intends to build the ability of learner in communicating, well-known by Communicative approach/communicative language teaching (Huda 1999: 118).
Communicative approach (CA) was very popular in 1960s-1979s. It assumes that if the students are involved in meaning focused communicative task, then ‘language learning will take care of itself’ (Allwright 1979) (Harmer 2007: 69). The goal of CA is communicative competence in which instruction needs to be aimed in organizational, pragmatic and strategic competence (Azies & Alwasilah 2000; www.onlineenglish.net). Moreover Richard argued that communicative competence referred to “the capacity to use language appropriately in communication based on the setting, the roles of the participants, and the nature of transaction” (2001:36). In other words, grammar and the use of language hold important aspects in promoting communication.
Syllabus as aims to simplify and rationalize the curriculum (Richard, 2001: 42) influences the selecting of material and the method used in classroom. Huda (1999:118) summarizes the components of 1984 English syllabus as structure, reading, vocabulary, dialogues, writing, song and game (SMP), and spelling, pronunciation and poem (SMU). Here the structure, as mention earlier, still is placed as important aspect to be able to communicative well.
The content of the book shows that the syllabus design is structural syllabus which main focus is structure (Krahne and Richard). A major characteristic of structural syllabus is “synthetic” (Wilkins, 1976; Yalden 1983 cited by Krahne 1987:16) that derives from assumption that learner can synthesize the material from analyzing rule and patterns to construct information. Reading a text is assigned as the context of the use of grammatical rule.
However, Krahnke states that the structural syllabus usually associated with Grammar traditional method (GTM), audioligualism and silent way (1987: 17; see also Celci-Murcia 1991), whereas CA usually used the notional/functional syllabus (Krahne 1987: 29, Richard 37; Dubin and Olshtain, 1986). Obviously it demonstrates contradiction between philosophical principle perceived by government and text book used by teachers in class.
The 1994 English Syllabus
The 1994 English syllabus emerged as the approval of UU Sistem Pendidikan Nasional No. 2, 1989. The goal of national education is to develop mentality of nation which is imbued with, faith, moral, science and skill, and also to increase responsibility as nation (chapter II, article 4). In addition, in chapter IX, article 37 states that curriculum development in every school level is based the development of learner and situational needs, national development, and development of science, technology and art. Therefore for the need of globalization and 21st century, the goal of ELT addresses to the development of communicative competence in English, including reading, listening, speaking and writing skill simultaneously by mastering 1,000 words for Lower secondary level and 2,500 words for higher secondary level (Depdikbud 1993; Huda 1999: 119).
The approach of teaching is communicative/meaningful approach which is broader than previous syllabus (see Depdikbud 1993; Huda 1990; Suplemen GBPP 1994, 2000; Kasinhani cited by Emilia 2005). Reading, as mention earlier in the goal, and mastering vocabulary still hold important skill to communicate (Huda’s survey at 1990). Reading is represented in some themes. Theme is the context of communication (Suplemen 1994, 2000) not as material which is learned by students. Grammatical rule is used and presented to express meaning and functional skills (Depdikbud 1993; Suplemen 1994, 2000). Learning process is focused on learner-centered orientation (Depdikbud 1993; Ernawan & Hardjomarso, 1996).
The example shows that the first column is TPU (learning objective). Richard called syllabus by emphasizing “the essential skills, knowledge, and attitudes” is called competence- based syllabus (159). Moreover, Ernawan & Hardjomarso called it “Thematic” syllabus (1996). Krahnke and Richard called thematic syllabus as topical/content based-syllabus (See Krahne 1987:66, Richard 2001; 157). However, the 1994 ELT syllabus is as integration of functional, situational, skill and structural (Suplemen 1994, 2000). In other words “Variable focus design”, which emphasizes to gradual change of focus of organizing principle, affects the design of syllabus (Huda, 1999: 123). However, this ELT regards fails to overcome the national goal, particularly to respect multicultural values (Lie, 2000). Hence, the improvement of our ELT syllabus is indeed needed.
The 2004 ELT Syllabus
The 2004 ELT Syllabus emerges after a year of launching of Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (UU. SISDIKNAS) No. 20, 2003. The aim of national education is to develop learners’ potentials so that they become persons imbued with human values who are faithful and possess morals and noble character; healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent; and as citizens, are democratic and responsible (Chapter II, Article 3). Moreover, in chapter II, article 3 states that the development of curriculum is influenced by the development of paradigm of philosophy, learning and language theory. The emerging of post-structural paradigm in philosophy movement influences the theory of how language is learnt and taught which views learning language as medium to deconstruct social life (Connole, Smith & Wiseman 1993; Alawasilah 2008).
Government underlines some characteristics of this curriculum. The first characteristic is based on “competence” of Celce-Murcia, Dornyei dan Thurrell (1995) in which consists of discourse competence supported by linguistic competence, actional, socio-cultural competence and strategic competence. The second is the systemic functional linguistics (SFL) of Halliday (1978) which has ideational, interpersonal and textual function including text, co-text and context. The third is ‘level of competence’ (Wells 1987) whereas the junior higher learner intends to reach functional level; in other hand, senior high learner intends to reach informational level. The last is the development of language competence from spoken to written language. The goal of ELT for SMP focuses on written spoken language/bahasa lisan yang ditulis with simple sentences such as in descriptive, narrative, spoof/recount, procedure, report, and anecdote. However, it, in SMU, focuses on written language based on more advance genre type such as descriptive, narrative, spoof/recount, procedure, report, news item, anecdote, exposition explanation, discussion, commentary, and review.
The syllabus is skill-based (Krahnke, 1987: 50) in more traditional way of viewing is called competence-based instruction (Richard 2001: 159; Krahnke, 1987: 50) in which competence is viewed as similar as “behavioral objectives defined as what a learner is able to do as a result instruction” (Krahnke 1987:50).
Principles of developing the 2004 competence-based syllabus are scientific based, learner’s needs, systematic, relevant, consistent and adequate (Dekdasmen 2004:11). Furthermore, there are six steps of developing this syllabus; (1) writing subject identity, (2) formulating standard competence, (3) deciding basic competence, (4) deciding material and its explanation, (5) deciding learning strategy, and (6) deciding time allocation and resources (Dikdasmen 2004: 25). However, this curriculum is no longer used. In 2006, government launched School -based curriculum (KTSP). For some instances, KTSP is the development of the 2004 curriculum.
The 2006 ELT / Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) Syllabus
The spirit of decentralization, as showed by Act of local Autonomy No. 22, 1999 revised by Act of Local Autonomy No. 32, 2004 and hand in hand with Act No. 20, 2003, is seen in the 2006 curriculum. In this regard, education is not merely central government’s responsibility; local government also has responsibility in managing and funding education. Therefore, kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) is developed from Standard of content by schools based on their context and potential.
Although KTSP varies between one and other schools, Government gives some regulations stated in Governmental Regulation (PP) No. 19, 2005 concerning National Standard of Education (SNP) at May 16, 2005. It consists of: standard of content, standard competence of graduate, standard of process, standard of educator and administrator, standard of medium and infrastructure, standard of funding, and standard of assessment. Furthermore, all standards are ruled by PERMENDIKNAS.
English, as stated in standard of content (PERMENDIKNAS No. 22, 2006), is learned at elementary two hours in a week (as Mulok for class IV, V and VI), at junior and senior high school four hours in a week except for language program in SMU – five hours in a week. Moreover, the standard competence of graduate of English (PERMEN No. 23, 2006) for each level is communicative competence in the form of spoken of language accompanying action for elementary school, in the form of spoken and written for achieving functional literacy level for junior high school and in the form of spoken and written for achieving informational literacy level for senior high school.
From the goal and scope above, we can see that every school level is simultaneously ‘variable focus design’ which emphasizes to gradual change (Huda, 1999).
The syllabus, in this curriculum, perceived as the plan of learning process with lesson plan- RPP (PP No. 19, 2005, chapter IV, article 20; PERMEN No. 41, 2007) which consists of standard of competence, basic standard, material, learning activities, learning indicators, assessment, time allocation and resources (PP No. 19, 2005, Chapter IV, article 20; Depdiknas, 2006; PERMEN No. 41, 2007). The syllabus is developed by a teacher or group teacher supervised by department of education based on standard of content, standard competence of graduate and guiding of arrangement of school-based curriculum (Appendix of PERMEN No. 41, 2007).
Furthermore, principles of developing syllabus are scientific, relevance, systematic, consistence, adequate, actual, contextual, flexible and comprehensive (Depdiknas, 2006). Moreover, the steps of development are as follow: (1) investigating and deciding Standard of competence, (2) investigating and deciding basic competence, (3) identifying main topic/material, (4) developing learning activity, (5) formulating indicators, (6) deciding kind of assessment, (7) deciding time allocation, and (8) deciding resources (Appendix of PERMEN No. 41, 2007).
Basically, the 2006 syllabus is as similar with the 2004 ELT syllabus. The difference is in deciding in indicators, theme and in teaching approach. The 2006 does not focus on theme and indicators are decided based on the necessity of learner’s need and ability. Moreover, the 2006 emphasizes on learning process as highlight in lesson plan and as mentioned in PP No. 19, 2005, Chapter IV, article 19, verses 1 “learning process is performed interactive, inspirable, fun, challenging, motivating learners to involve actively, and given adequate space for initiative, creativity, autonomy based on learners’ potential, interest, psychical and psychological development” however, 2004 which greatly influenced with Systemic functional Linguistics of Halliday (1987).
The syllabus in language teaching and learning indeed depends on how the organization of content (Krahnke 1987: 1). It can be a table of content or the essence of the course (Parker & Harris 2002; http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm). However, some syllabus design relates to language teaching approach; structural syllabus originates GTM, notional and functional syllabus emerges as supporting of CLT and situational syllabus relates to the notion of ESP, but not all (Krahnke 1987). Krahnke mentions skill/competence based, content-based and integrated- based syllabi do not relate to any kind of language approach (1987:50). Rather it is influenced by; “(1) goal and objective of the overall instructional program, (2) Instructional resources available, (3) teachers factors, and (4) students factors” (Sundayana, 2004).
However, the development of ELT syllabus in Indonesia from structural-based (The 1984 syllabus), Thematic-based (The 1994 syllabus), to competence/skill – based (The 2004 and 2006 syllabus) is not followed by the changing of approaching used by teacher in classroom. Teachers tend to teach more grammar and structure separately and explicitly out of their communicative competence (As Hikam as cited by Emilia 2005). Teachers’ habitual and their previous experiences influence the way of their teaching. Therefore, the government’s policy to certify teacher is very crucial in developing ELT syllabus and further for ‘providing effective teaching’ as part of curriculum development (Richards, 2001).
Alwasilah, A. C. (2008). Mengapa Filsafat? In A. C. Alwasilah, Filsafat Bahasa dan Pendidikan (pp. 6-22). Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.
Azies, F., & Alwasilah, A. C. (2000). Pengajaran Bahasa Komunikatif: Teori dan Praktek. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.
BSNP. (2007). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia No. 41 Tahun 2007 Tentang Standar Proses. Jakarta: Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan.
Celce-Murcia, M. (1991). Language Teaching Approaches : An Overview. In M. Celce-Murcia, Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (pp. 3-10). Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publisher.
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Connole, H., Smith, B., & Wiseman, R. (1993). Research Methodology 1: Issues and Method in Research. Victoria: Deakin University.
Curriculum Theory and Practice. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Conference: Informal Education with a Formal Setting: http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm
Depdiknas. (2005). Peraturan Pemerintah No. 19 Tahun 2005 Tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan. Jakarta: Depdiknas.
Dikdasmen. (2004). Pedoman Umum Pengembangan Silabus Berbasis Kompetensi Siswa SMP. Jakarta: Depdiknas.
Dikdasmen. (2000). Penyempurnaan/Penyesuaian Kurikulum 1994 SLTP (Suplemen GBBP). Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.
Dubin, F., & Olshtain, E. (1986). Course Design. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Emilia, E. (2005). A Critical Genre-Based Approach to Teaching Academic Writing in a Tertiary EFL Context in Indonesia . Melbourne: Unfublished Thesis.
Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Learning. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited 2007.
Huda, N. (1999). Language Learning and Teaching. Malang: IKIP Malang Publisher.
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Krahnke, K. (1987). Approaches to Syllabus Design for Foreign Language Teaching. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Lie, A. (2000). The Multicultural Curriculum: Education for Peace and Development. The 35th Southest Asian Ministers of Education Organization Regional Language Centre (SEAMELO RELC) Conference. Singapura, 17-19 April 2000: SEAMEO Jasper Monograph Series.
Lye, J. (2008, April 20). Retrieved February 20, 2009, from Brock University: http://www.brocku.ca/english/courses/4F70/poststruct.php
Parker, J., & Harris, M. B. (2002). The Purposes of a Syllabus. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from http://coe.nau.edu/part_time_fr/syllabus_cline_article_2.pdf
Pezzoli, K., & Howe, D. (2001). Planning Pedagogy and Globalization. Journal of Planning Education and research , 365-375.
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Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sundayana, W. (2004). Syllabus Design in the Frame of Competence-Based Curriculum English. Competence- Based Teaching in Action. Bandung: HIMA Bahasa Inggris UPI Bandung.
Thwaites, T., Davis, L., & Mules, W. (1994). Tools for Cultural Studies. South Melbourne: Macmillan Education Australia, Ltd.
Wachidah, S. (2004). Introduction to Competence-Based Teaching in Action. Naional Seminar: Competence-Based Teaching in Action (pp. -). Bandung: HIMA Bahasa Inggris UPI Bandung.
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Language immersion is a method of teaching a second language (also called L2, or the target language). Unlike a more traditional language course, where the target language is simply the subject material, language immersion uses the target language as a teaching tool, surrounding or "immersing" students in the second language. In-class activities, such as math, social studies, and history, and those outside of the class, such as meals or everyday tasks, are conducted in the target language. Today's immersion programs are based on those founded in the 1960s in Canada when middle-income English-speaking parents convinced educators to establish an experimental French immersion program enabling their children 'to appreciate the traditions and culture of French-speaking Canadians as well as English-speaking Canadians'.
In the United States, and since the 1980s, dual immersion programs have grown for a number of reasons: competition in a global economy, a growing population of second language learners, and the successes of previous programs . Language immersion classes can now be found throughout the US, in urban and suburban areas, in dual-immersion and single language immersion, and in an array of languages. As of May 2005, there were 317 dual immersion programs in US elementary schools, providing instruction in 10 languages, and 96% of programs were in Spanish 
Educators distinguish between language immersion and submersion programs. In the former, the class is composed of students learning the L2 at the same level; while in the latter, one or two students are learning the foreign language, which is the first language (L1) for the rest of the class, thus they are "thrown into the ocean to learn how to swim" instead of gradually immersed in the new language.
A new form of language related syllabus delivery called Internationalised Curriculum provides a different angle by immersing the curricula from various countries into the local language curriculum and separating out the language-learning aspects of the syllabus. Proponents believe immersion study in a language foreign to the country of instruction doesn't produce as effective results as separated language learning and may, in fact, hinder education effectiveness and learning in other subject areas.
2 Method quality
3 Benefits of Language Instruction
5 See also
7 External links
A number of different immersion programs have evolved since those first ones in Canada. Immersion programs may be categorized according to age and extent of immersion.
Early immersion: Students begin the second language from age 5 or 6.
Middle immersion: Students begin the second language from age 9 or 10.
Late immersion: Students begin the second language between ages 11 and 14.
In total immersion, almost 100% of class time is spent in the foreign language. Subject matter taught in foreign language and language learning per se is incorporated as necessary throughout the curriculum. The goals are to become functionally proficient in the foreign language, to master subject content taught in the foreign languages, and to acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures. This type of program is usually sequential, cumulative, continuous, proficiency-oriented, and part of an integrated grade school sequence. Even in total immersion, the language of the curriculum may revert to the first language of the learners after several years.
In partial immersion, about half of the class time is spent learning subject matter in the foreign language. The goals are to become functionally proficient in the second language (though to a lesser extent than through total immersion), to master subject content taught in the foreign languages, and to acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures.
In two-way immersion, also called "dual-" or "bilingual immersion", the student population consists of speakers of two or more languages. Ideally speaking, half of the class is made up of native speakers of the major language in the area (e.g., English in the U.S.) and the other half is of the target language (e.g., Spanish). Class time is split in half and taught in the major and target languages. This way students encourage and teach each other, and eventually all become bilingual. The goals are similar to the above program. Different ratios of the target language to the native language may occur.
In content-based foreign languages in elementary schools (FLES), about 15–50% of class time is spent in the foreign language and time is spent learning it as well as learning subject matter in the foreign language. The goals of the program are to acquire proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing the foreign language, to use subject content as a vehicle for acquiring foreign language skills, and to acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures.
In FLES programs, 5–15% of class time is spent in the foreign language and time is spent learning language itself. It takes a minimum of 75 minutes per week, at least every other day. The goals of the program are to acquire proficiency in listening and speaking (degree of proficiency varies with the program), to acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures, and to acquire some proficiency in reading and writing (emphasis varies with the program).
In FLEX (Foreign Language Experience) programs, frequent and regular sessions over a short period or short and/or infrequent sessions over an extended period are provided in the second language. Class is almost always in the first language. Only one to five percent of class time is spent sampling each of one or more languages and/or learning about language. The goals of the program are to develop an interest in foreign languages for future language study, to learn basic words and phrases in one or more foreign languages, to develop careful listening skills, to develop cultural awareness, and to develop linguistic awareness. This type of program is usually noncontinuous.
 Method quality
Baker found that more than 1,000 studies have been completed on immersion programs and immersion language learners in Canada. These studies have given us a wealth of information. Across these studies, a number of important observations can be made.
Early immersion students "lag behind" their monolingual peers in literacy (reading, spelling, and punctuation) "for the first few years only". However, after the first few years, the immersion students catch up with their peers.
Immersion programs have no negative effects on spoken skills in the first language.
Early immersion students acquire almost-native-like proficiency in passive skill (listening and reading) comprehension of the second language by the age of 11.
Early immersion students are more successful in listening and reading proficiency than partial and late immersion students.
Immersion programs have no negative effects on the cognitive development of the students.
Monolingual peers perform better in sciences and math at an early age, however immersion students eventually catch up with, and in some cases, outperform their monolingual peers.
 Benefits of Language Instruction
Many immersion programs start in the elementary schools, with classroom time being dedicated to the foreign language anywhere between 50% and 90% of the day . There are many benefits to having a child study a foreign language at such an early age, including “ greater mental flexibility, creativity, divergent thinking skills, and higher-order thinking skills, as well as improved listening skills and memories”. Starting at an early age also allows a student more time to become proficient in the language, giving them more of an opportunity to become bilingual and biliterate. And no matter at what age, learning a language helps “increase listening ability, memory, creativity and critical thinking” and allow students to look at the world in a different way . Jean Piaget, the developmental psychologist, had a theory that stated that when a child faces an idea that does not fit his understanding, it “becomes a catalyst for new thinking” . As a new language is completely foreign to a child at first, it fits perfectly as this “catalyst for new thinking”.
In language instruction, it is impossible to ignore the culture(s) of the language being taught. Culture can affect the way that language is taught and its interpretation  and because language is a social instrument, “the feelings... and motivations of learners in relation to the target language..., to the speakers of the language, and to the culture will affect how learners respond to the input to which they are exposed”  Studies have also shown that students in dual programs have “more positive attitudes towards bilingualism and multicultiralism” .
 See also
Gaelscoileanna Irish-Gaelic language immersion
Intensive Spanish course
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (October 2007)
1.^ a b Baker, C. (1993). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
2.^ a b c Freeman
5.^ a b www.buzzle.com
7.^ a b Byram
Anderson, H., & Rhodes, N. (1983). Immersion and other innovations in U.S. elementary schools. In: "Studies in Language Learning, 4" (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 278 237)
Andrade, C., & Ging, D. (1988). "Urban FLES models: Progress and promise." Cincinnati, OH and Columbus, OH: Cincinnati Public Schools and Columbus Public Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 292 337)
Byram, Michael. Teaching-and-Learning Language-and-Culture. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Limited, 1994)
Chen, Ya-Ling (2006). The Influence of Partial English Immersion Programs in Taiwan on Kindergartners' Perceptions of Chinese and English Languages and Cultures. The Asian EFL Journal Vol 8(1) http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/March_06_ylc.php
Criminale, U. (1985). "Launching foreign language programs in elementary schools: Highpoints, headaches, and how to's." Oklahoma City, OK. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 255 039)
Curtain, H., & Pesola, C.A. (1994). "Languages and children-Making the match. Foreign language instruction in the elementary school." White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.
Freeman, Yvonne (2005). Dual Language Essentials For Teachers and Administrators. Heinemann: Portsmouth, NH, 2005
Potowski, Kim. Language and Identity in a Dual Immersion School. Multilingual Matters Limited, 2007.
Tagliere, Julia. "Foreign Language Study--Is Elementary School the Right Time to Start?". http://www.buzzle.com/articles/foreign-language-study-is-elementary-school-right-time-to-start.html
Thayer, Y. (1988). "Getting started with French or Spanish in the elementary school: The cost in time and money." Radford, VA: Radford City Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 294 450)
Walker, Cheryl. "Foreign Language Study Important in Elementary School". Wake Forest University. http://www.wfu.edu/wfunews/2004/062404r.html
The Wingspread Journal. (July 1988). "Foreign language instruction in the elementary schools." Racine, WI: The Johnson Foundation.
 External links