Senin, 18 Januari 2010

tugas uas SLA

Basic competence lesson plan
Development of English Language Teaching Syllabus in Indonesia
By: Eneng Elis Aisah*
(English Teacher in MTs. Negeri Ciranjang, Cianjur, West Java ,Indonesia)
Introduction
Many critiques correspond to government due to curriculum change over minister replacement (http://www.suaramerdeka.com/harian/0412/30/nas09.htm, December 30, 2004, retrieved at April 8, 2009). Curriculum, in school context “referring to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in school” (Richard 2001:39), is influenced by the development of paradigm of philosophy (Zais 1976), needs and situational analysis (Richard 2001) and also ‘Global Mega trend’ (Pezzoli & Howe 2001). Therefore the changing of curriculum, followed by the development of syllabus as of  means selecting, organizing, assessing content (Brown cited by Sundayana 2004) and goal of curriculum activities in the classroom context (Huda, 1999) holds crucial issues in our education.
This writing is chapter report from a book entitled “Language Learning and Teaching” written by Nuril Huda in 1999. This report discusses the development of English language Teaching Syllabus in Indonesia from 1984 up to 2006. This is divided into four sections. The first will discuss syllabus of 1984 curriculum. The second section will introduce some discussion of syllabus of 1994 curriculum. The next section will be shown syllabus of Competence based curriculum (2004) and finally the latest curriculum – School based curriculum –will be discussed.
The 1984 English Language Teaching (ELT) Syllabus
The 1984 curriculum is based on the amendment of 1975 curriculum (Kasihani cited by Emilia 2005). The education is ruled in UUPP (Undang-Undang Pendidikan dan Pengajaran) No. 4, 1950. The goal of education is membentuk manusia susila jang tjakap dan warga Negara jang demokratis serta bertanggung-djawab tentang kesedjahteraan masyarakat dan tanah air (Chapter II, article 3). As the situational needs, in Pidato Kenegaraan at August 16, 1984 the president of Indonesia address the goal of education development in Repelita III is to improve quality of education, learning opportunity, relevance of education and development, efficiency and effectively of management of education by training and curriculum improvement for fulfilling development skillful labor (Repelita III Chapter XVII).  Therefore, due to the needs and situational analysis, the changing of curriculum is necessary.
Although English is placed as the foreign language in Indonesia, the competency of learner in this subject is very important to overcome the national development goal. So, the 1984 English syllabus intends to build the ability of learner in communicating, well-known by Communicative approach/communicative language teaching (Huda 1999: 118).
Communicative approach (CA) was very popular in 1960s-1979s. It assumes that if the students are involved in meaning focused communicative task, then ‘language learning will take care of itself’ (Allwright 1979) (Harmer 2007: 69).  The goal of CA is communicative competence in which instruction needs to be aimed in organizational, pragmatic and strategic competence (Azies & Alwasilah 2000; www.onlineenglish.net). Moreover Richard argued that communicative competence referred to “the capacity to use language appropriately in communication based on the setting, the roles of the participants, and the nature of transaction” (2001:36). In other words, grammar and the use of language hold important aspects in promoting communication.
Syllabus as aims to simplify and rationalize the curriculum (Richard, 2001: 42) influences the selecting of material and the method used in classroom. Huda (1999:118) summarizes the components of 1984 English syllabus as structure, reading, vocabulary, dialogues, writing, song and game (SMP), and spelling, pronunciation and poem (SMU). Here the structure, as mention earlier, still is placed as important aspect to be able to communicative well.
The content of the book shows that the syllabus design is structural syllabus which main focus is structure (Krahne and Richard).  A major characteristic of structural syllabus is “synthetic” (Wilkins, 1976; Yalden 1983 cited by Krahne 1987:16) that derives from assumption that learner can synthesize the material from analyzing rule and patterns to construct information. Reading a text is assigned as the context of the use of grammatical rule.
However, Krahnke states that the structural syllabus usually associated with Grammar traditional method (GTM), audioligualism and silent way (1987: 17; see also Celci-Murcia 1991), whereas CA usually used the notional/functional syllabus (Krahne 1987: 29, Richard 37; Dubin and Olshtain, 1986).  Obviously it demonstrates contradiction between philosophical principle perceived by government and text book used by teachers in class.
The 1994 English Syllabus
The 1994 English syllabus emerged as the approval of UU Sistem Pendidikan Nasional No. 2, 1989. The goal of national education is to develop mentality of nation which is imbued with, faith, moral, science and skill, and also to increase responsibility as nation (chapter II, article 4). In addition, in chapter IX, article 37 states that curriculum development in every school level is based the development of learner and situational needs, national development, and development of science, technology and art. Therefore for the need of globalization and 21st century, the goal of ELT addresses to the development of communicative competence in English, including reading, listening, speaking and writing skill simultaneously by mastering 1,000 words for Lower secondary level and 2,500 words for higher secondary level (Depdikbud 1993; Huda 1999: 119).
The approach of teaching is communicative/meaningful approach which is broader than previous syllabus (see Depdikbud 1993; Huda 1990; Suplemen GBPP 1994, 2000; Kasinhani cited by Emilia 2005). Reading, as mention earlier in the goal, and mastering vocabulary still hold important skill to communicate (Huda’s survey at 1990). Reading is represented in some themes. Theme is the context of communication (Suplemen 1994, 2000) not as material which is learned by students. Grammatical rule is used and presented to express meaning and functional skills (Depdikbud 1993; Suplemen 1994, 2000). Learning process is focused on learner-centered orientation (Depdikbud 1993; Ernawan & Hardjomarso, 1996).
The example shows that the first column is TPU (learning objective). Richard called syllabus by emphasizing “the essential skills, knowledge, and attitudes” is called competence- based syllabus (159). Moreover, Ernawan & Hardjomarso called it “Thematic” syllabus (1996). Krahnke and Richard called thematic syllabus as topical/content based-syllabus (See Krahne 1987:66, Richard 2001; 157). However, the 1994 ELT syllabus is as integration of functional, situational, skill and structural (Suplemen 1994, 2000). In other words “Variable focus design”, which emphasizes to gradual change of focus of organizing principle, affects the design of syllabus (Huda, 1999: 123). However, this ELT regards fails to overcome the national goal, particularly to respect multicultural values (Lie, 2000). Hence, the improvement of our ELT syllabus is indeed needed.
The 2004 ELT Syllabus
The 2004 ELT Syllabus emerges after a year of launching of Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (UU. SISDIKNAS) No. 20, 2003. The aim of national education is to develop learners’ potentials so that they become persons imbued with human values who are faithful and possess morals and noble character; healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent; and as citizens, are democratic and responsible (Chapter II, Article 3). Moreover, in chapter II, article 3 states that the development of curriculum is influenced by the development of paradigm of philosophy, learning and language theory. The emerging of post-structural paradigm in philosophy movement influences the theory of how language is learnt and taught which views learning language as medium to deconstruct social life (Connole, Smith & Wiseman 1993; Alawasilah 2008).
Government underlines some characteristics of this curriculum. The first characteristic is based on “competence” of Celce-Murcia, Dornyei dan Thurrell (1995) in which consists of discourse competence supported by linguistic competence, actional, socio-cultural competence and strategic competence. The second is the systemic functional linguistics (SFL) of Halliday (1978) which has ideational, interpersonal and textual function including text, co-text and context. The third is ‘level of competence’ (Wells 1987) whereas the junior higher learner intends to reach functional level; in other hand, senior high learner intends to reach informational level. The last is the development of language competence from spoken to written language.  The goal of ELT for SMP focuses on written spoken language/bahasa lisan yang ditulis with simple sentences such as in descriptive, narrative, spoof/recount, procedure, report, and anecdote. However, it, in SMU, focuses on written language based on more advance genre type such as descriptive, narrative, spoof/recount, procedure, report, news item, anecdote, exposition explanation, discussion, commentary, and review.
The syllabus is skill-based (Krahnke, 1987: 50) in more traditional way of viewing is called competence-based instruction (Richard 2001: 159; Krahnke, 1987: 50) in which competence is viewed as similar as “behavioral objectives defined as what a learner is able to do as a result instruction” (Krahnke 1987:50).
Principles of developing the 2004 competence-based syllabus are scientific based, learner’s needs, systematic, relevant, consistent and adequate (Dekdasmen 2004:11). Furthermore, there are six steps of developing this syllabus; (1) writing subject identity, (2) formulating standard competence, (3) deciding basic competence, (4) deciding material and its explanation, (5) deciding learning strategy, and (6) deciding time allocation and resources (Dikdasmen 2004: 25). However, this curriculum is no longer used. In 2006, government launched School -based curriculum (KTSP). For some instances, KTSP is the development of the 2004 curriculum.
The 2006 ELT / Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) Syllabus
The spirit of decentralization, as showed by Act of local Autonomy No. 22, 1999 revised by Act of Local Autonomy No. 32, 2004 and hand in hand with Act No. 20, 2003, is seen in the 2006 curriculum. In this regard, education is not merely central government’s responsibility; local government also has responsibility in managing and funding education.  Therefore, kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) is developed from Standard of content by schools based on their context and potential.
Although KTSP varies between one and other schools, Government gives some regulations stated in Governmental Regulation (PP) No. 19, 2005 concerning National Standard of Education (SNP) at May 16, 2005. It consists of:  standard of content, standard competence of graduate, standard of process, standard of educator and administrator, standard of medium and infrastructure, standard of funding, and standard of assessment. Furthermore, all standards are ruled by PERMENDIKNAS.
English, as stated in standard of content (PERMENDIKNAS No. 22, 2006), is learned at elementary two hours in a week (as Mulok for class IV, V and VI), at junior and senior high school four hours in a week except for language program in SMU – five hours in a week. Moreover, the standard competence of graduate of English (PERMEN No. 23, 2006) for each level is communicative competence in the form of spoken of language accompanying action for elementary school, in the form of spoken and written for achieving functional literacy level for junior high school and in the form of spoken and written for achieving informational literacy level for senior high school.
From the goal and scope above, we can see that every school level is simultaneously ‘variable focus design’ which emphasizes to gradual change (Huda, 1999).
The syllabus, in this curriculum, perceived as the plan of learning process with lesson plan- RPP (PP No. 19, 2005, chapter IV, article 20; PERMEN No. 41, 2007) which consists of standard of competence, basic standard, material, learning activities, learning indicators, assessment, time allocation and resources (PP No. 19, 2005, Chapter IV, article 20; Depdiknas, 2006; PERMEN No. 41, 2007). The syllabus is developed by a teacher or group teacher supervised by department of education based on standard of content, standard competence of graduate and guiding of arrangement of school-based curriculum (Appendix of PERMEN No. 41, 2007).
Furthermore, principles of developing syllabus are scientific, relevance, systematic, consistence, adequate, actual, contextual, flexible and comprehensive (Depdiknas, 2006). Moreover, the steps of development are as follow: (1) investigating and deciding Standard of competence, (2) investigating and deciding basic competence, (3) identifying main topic/material, (4) developing learning activity, (5) formulating indicators, (6) deciding kind of assessment, (7) deciding time allocation, and (8) deciding resources (Appendix of PERMEN No. 41, 2007).
Basically, the 2006 syllabus is as similar with the 2004 ELT syllabus. The difference is in deciding in indicators, theme and in teaching approach.  The 2006 does not focus on theme and indicators are decided based on the necessity of learner’s need and ability. Moreover, the 2006 emphasizes on learning process as highlight in lesson plan and as mentioned in PP No. 19, 2005, Chapter IV, article 19, verses 1 “learning process is performed interactive, inspirable, fun, challenging, motivating learners to involve actively, and given adequate space for initiative, creativity, autonomy based on learners’ potential, interest, psychical and psychological development” however, 2004 which greatly influenced with Systemic functional Linguistics of Halliday (1987).
Conclusion
The syllabus in language teaching and learning indeed depends on how the organization of content (Krahnke 1987: 1).  It can be a table of content or the essence of the course (Parker & Harris 2002; http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm). However, some syllabus design relates to language teaching approach; structural syllabus originates GTM, notional and functional syllabus emerges as supporting of CLT and situational syllabus relates to the notion of ESP, but not all (Krahnke 1987). Krahnke mentions skill/competence based, content-based and integrated- based syllabi do not relate to any kind of language approach (1987:50). Rather it is influenced by; “(1) goal and objective of the overall instructional program, (2) Instructional resources available, (3) teachers factors, and (4) students factors” (Sundayana, 2004).
However, the development of ELT syllabus in Indonesia from structural-based (The 1984 syllabus), Thematic-based (The 1994 syllabus), to competence/skill – based (The 2004 and 2006 syllabus) is not followed by the changing of approaching used by teacher in classroom. Teachers tend to teach more grammar and structure separately and explicitly out of their communicative competence (As Hikam as cited by Emilia 2005). Teachers’ habitual and their previous experiences influence the way of their teaching.  Therefore, the government’s policy to certify teacher is very crucial in developing ELT syllabus and further for ‘providing effective teaching’ as part of curriculum development (Richards, 2001).
Bibliography
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Celce-Murcia, M. (1991). Language Teaching Approaches : An Overview. In M. Celce-Murcia, Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (pp. 3-10). Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publisher.
Communicative approach . (n.d.). Retrieved from www.onlineenglish.net
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Language immersion
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The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject. Please help improve the article with a good introductory style. (July 2006)

Please help improve this article by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (January 2007)
Language immersion is a method of teaching a second language (also called L2, or the target language). Unlike a more traditional language course, where the target language is simply the subject material, language immersion uses the target language as a teaching tool, surrounding or "immersing" students in the second language. In-class activities, such as math, social studies, and history, and those outside of the class, such as meals or everyday tasks, are conducted in the target language. Today's immersion programs are based on those founded in the 1960s in Canada when middle-income English-speaking parents convinced educators to establish an experimental French immersion program enabling their children 'to appreciate the traditions and culture of French-speaking Canadians as well as English-speaking Canadians'.[1]
In the United States, and since the 1980s, dual immersion programs have grown for a number of reasons: competition in a global economy, a growing population of second language learners, and the successes of previous programs [2]. Language immersion classes can now be found throughout the US, in urban and suburban areas, in dual-immersion and single language immersion, and in an array of languages. As of May 2005, there were 317 dual immersion programs in US elementary schools, providing instruction in 10 languages, and 96% of programs were in Spanish [3]
Educators distinguish between language immersion and submersion programs. In the former, the class is composed of students learning the L2 at the same level; while in the latter, one or two students are learning the foreign language, which is the first language (L1) for the rest of the class, thus they are "thrown into the ocean to learn how to swim" instead of gradually immersed in the new language.
A new form of language related syllabus delivery called Internationalised Curriculum provides a different angle by immersing the curricula from various countries into the local language curriculum and separating out the language-learning aspects of the syllabus. Proponents believe immersion study in a language foreign to the country of instruction doesn't produce as effective results as separated language learning and may, in fact, hinder education effectiveness and learning in other subject areas.

Contents
[hide]
1 Types
1.1 Age
1.2 Extent
2 Method quality
3 Benefits of Language Instruction
4 Culture
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
[edit] Types
A number of different immersion programs have evolved since those first ones in Canada. Immersion programs may be categorized according to age and extent of immersion.
[edit] Age
Early immersion: Students begin the second language from age 5 or 6.
Middle immersion: Students begin the second language from age 9 or 10.
Late immersion: Students begin the second language between ages 11 and 14.
[edit] Extent
In total immersion, almost 100% of class time is spent in the foreign language. Subject matter taught in foreign language and language learning per se is incorporated as necessary throughout the curriculum. The goals are to become functionally proficient in the foreign language, to master subject content taught in the foreign languages, and to acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures. This type of program is usually sequential, cumulative, continuous, proficiency-oriented, and part of an integrated grade school sequence. Even in total immersion, the language of the curriculum may revert to the first language of the learners after several years.
In partial immersion, about half of the class time is spent learning subject matter in the foreign language. The goals are to become functionally proficient in the second language (though to a lesser extent than through total immersion), to master subject content taught in the foreign languages, and to acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures.
In two-way immersion, also called "dual-" or "bilingual immersion", the student population consists of speakers of two or more languages. Ideally speaking, half of the class is made up of native speakers of the major language in the area (e.g., English in the U.S.) and the other half is of the target language (e.g., Spanish). Class time is split in half and taught in the major and target languages. This way students encourage and teach each other, and eventually all become bilingual. The goals are similar to the above program. Different ratios of the target language to the native language may occur.
In content-based foreign languages in elementary schools (FLES), about 15–50% of class time is spent in the foreign language and time is spent learning it as well as learning subject matter in the foreign language. The goals of the program are to acquire proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing the foreign language, to use subject content as a vehicle for acquiring foreign language skills, and to acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures.
In FLES programs, 5–15% of class time is spent in the foreign language and time is spent learning language itself. It takes a minimum of 75 minutes per week, at least every other day. The goals of the program are to acquire proficiency in listening and speaking (degree of proficiency varies with the program), to acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures, and to acquire some proficiency in reading and writing (emphasis varies with the program).
In FLEX (Foreign Language Experience) programs, frequent and regular sessions over a short period or short and/or infrequent sessions over an extended period are provided in the second language. Class is almost always in the first language. Only one to five percent of class time is spent sampling each of one or more languages and/or learning about language. The goals of the program are to develop an interest in foreign languages for future language study, to learn basic words and phrases in one or more foreign languages, to develop careful listening skills, to develop cultural awareness, and to develop linguistic awareness. This type of program is usually noncontinuous.
[
Method quality

Baker[1] found that more than 1,000 studies have been completed on immersion programs and immersion language learners in Canada. These studies have given us a wealth of information. Across these studies, a number of important observations can be made.
Early immersion students "lag behind" their monolingual peers in literacy (reading, spelling, and punctuation) "for the first few years only". However, after the first few years, the immersion students catch up with their peers.
Immersion programs have no negative effects on spoken skills in the first language.
Early immersion students acquire almost-native-like proficiency in passive skill (listening and reading) comprehension of the second language by the age of 11.
Early immersion students are more successful in listening and reading proficiency than partial and late immersion students.
Immersion programs have no negative effects on the cognitive development of the students.
Monolingual peers perform better in sciences and math at an early age, however immersion students eventually catch up with, and in some cases, outperform their monolingual peers.
[edit] Benefits of Language Instruction
Many immersion programs start in the elementary schools, with classroom time being dedicated to the foreign language anywhere between 50% and 90% of the day [2]. There are many benefits to having a child study a foreign language at such an early age, including “ greater mental flexibility, creativity, divergent thinking skills, and higher-order thinking skills, as well as improved listening skills and memories”[4]. Starting at an early age also allows a student more time to become proficient in the language[5], giving them more of an opportunity to become bilingual and biliterate. And no matter at what age, learning a language helps “increase listening ability, memory, creativity and critical thinking” and allow students to look at the world in a different way [6]. Jean Piaget, the developmental psychologist, had a theory that stated that when a child faces an idea that does not fit his understanding, it “becomes a catalyst for new thinking” [5]. As a new language is completely foreign to a child at first, it fits perfectly as this “catalyst for new thinking”.
[edit] Culture
In language instruction, it is impossible to ignore the culture(s) of the language being taught. Culture can affect the way that language is taught and its interpretation [7] and because language is a social instrument, “the feelings... and motivations of learners in relation to the target language..., to the speakers of the language, and to the culture will affect how learners respond to the input to which they are exposed” [7] Studies have also shown that students in dual programs have “more positive attitudes towards bilingualism and multicultiralism” [2].
[edit] See also
English Village
French immersion
Gaelscoileanna Irish-Gaelic language immersion
Multilingualism
Intensive Spanish course
[edit] References

This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (October 2007)
1.^ a b Baker, C. (1993). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
2.^ a b c Freeman
3.^ Potowski
4.^ http://www.buzzle.com/articles/foreign-language-study-is-elementary-school-right-time-to-start.html
5.^ a b www.buzzle.com
6.^ http://www.wfu.edu/wfunews/2004/062404r.html
7.^ a b Byram
Anderson, H., & Rhodes, N. (1983). Immersion and other innovations in U.S. elementary schools. In: "Studies in Language Learning, 4" (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 278 237)
Andrade, C., & Ging, D. (1988). "Urban FLES models: Progress and promise." Cincinnati, OH and Columbus, OH: Cincinnati Public Schools and Columbus Public Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 292 337)
Byram, Michael. Teaching-and-Learning Language-and-Culture. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Limited, 1994)
Chen, Ya-Ling (2006). The Influence of Partial English Immersion Programs in Taiwan on Kindergartners' Perceptions of Chinese and English Languages and Cultures. The Asian EFL Journal Vol 8(1) http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/March_06_ylc.php
Criminale, U. (1985). "Launching foreign language programs in elementary schools: Highpoints, headaches, and how to's." Oklahoma City, OK. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 255 039)
Curtain, H., & Pesola, C.A. (1994). "Languages and children-Making the match. Foreign language instruction in the elementary school." White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.
Freeman, Yvonne (2005). Dual Language Essentials For Teachers and Administrators. Heinemann: Portsmouth, NH, 2005
Potowski, Kim. Language and Identity in a Dual Immersion School. Multilingual Matters Limited, 2007.
Tagliere, Julia. "Foreign Language Study--Is Elementary School the Right Time to Start?". http://www.buzzle.com/articles/foreign-language-study-is-elementary-school-right-time-to-start.html
Thayer, Y. (1988). "Getting started with French or Spanish in the elementary school: The cost in time and money." Radford, VA: Radford City Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 294 450)
Walker, Cheryl. "Foreign Language Study Important in Elementary School". Wake Forest University. http://www.wfu.edu/wfunews/2004/062404r.html
The Wingspread Journal. (July 1988). "Foreign language instruction in the elementary schools." Racine, WI: The Johnson Foundation.
[edit] External links

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